Fecal Globin by Immunochemistry (InSure®)

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Fecal Globin by Immunochemistry (InSure®)

$80.00

Test Description

Fecal Globin by Immunochemistry (InSure™) It is also called a fecal occult blood test. It quantitatively detects the level of hidden(occult) blood in our stools. Any Pathology in our lower gastrointestinal tract, which results in blood loss in the stool, can be easily detected with this test. These days it is widely used as a diagnostic and screening purpose for our routine examination. Many hidden pathologies like diverticula, polyps, and malignancies can easily be screened and diagnosed by this test. We usually need a stool sample to perform this test. Moreover, there are no special preparations to be done before this test. Who Should Take this test According to the recent guidelines by WHO, every person between 35-55 years should test him/herself every three months. Moreover, apart from this following people should undergo the testing on an urgent basis 1. Pale people 2. People who have pain in the abdomen for more than three months 3. People who have seen any blood in the stool 4. People with altered bowel habits 5. People having a family history of malignancies How to read the results It is either positive or negative. The positive results mean you are losing blood somewhere in the intestine. It can be due to hemorrhoids, ulcers, diverticuli, or cancers associated with the intestine. Moreover, the definitive diagnosis is made after further assessment and investigation are done. The Negative Results means that there is no hidden blood in the stool. You are not supposed to worry about in this case. DNA (ds) Antibody Double-Stranded DNA antibody testing is done to check the level of Anti Ds DNA specific autoantibodies. Normally, antibodies are produced in response to infection in our body, but these antibodies are produced on their own and start destroying our body's healthy tissues. People who are positive for ANA are prone to develop Systemic Lupus erythematosus and should undergo this test to rule out the SLE. Moreover, it is also used to diagnose conditions like viral hepatitis and infectious mononucleosis. Usually, we draw blood samples from veins to perform this test, and there are no special preparations to perform this test. When to order this test According to American Guidelines, it should be ordered in every patient with positive ANA. There are some other conditions in which it should be ordered on an urgent basis 1. A patient who complains of repeated generalized muscle ache 2. Patients with joints pain 3. Patients with cardiovascular involvement like syncope murmurs etc 4. Patients who have a butterfly rash on the face 5. Patients with severe joint pain 6. Patients who have hair loss. 7. Patients who feel generalized weakness 8. Patients with fever and myalgias 9. Patients who have burning micturition or haematuria 10. People with severe abdominal pain, blood in vomitus or are hepatitis positive. How to read the test A High titer can indicate that the person has either SLE or has an acute flare of this disease these days. A low titer means that these autoantibodies are negative, and we are supposed to look for the other pathologies, including Sjogren's syndrome and other connective tissue disorders. Fibromyalgia Panel Tests It includes Gliadin(Deamidated peptide), Antibody IgA, and IgG. These antibodies are produced in people who are allergic to a gluten-free diet. The level of these antibodies depicts the intake of gluten diet in allergic patients. These tests are carried out either to diagnose the celiac disease or to check the antibodies' level after refraining from the diet rich in gluten. We usually take a sample of blood to perform this test. This test comes under the fibromyalgia panel umbrella because fibromyalgia is a syndrome that covers celiac disease and autoimmune rheumatic disorders. When to order the test According to the WHO Guidelines, this test should be ordered in every subject with a family history of celiac disease or any rheumatic autoimmune disorder. Moreover, in the following subjects, it should be ordered on an urgent basis 1. Patients who have chronic diarrhea 2. Patients who experience bloating 3. Patients who experience abdominal pain 4. Patients who face weight loss and growth retardation 5. Patients who experience generalized muscular pain 6. Patients who have psychiatric symptoms 7. A patient who have greasy and foul-smelling episodes of stools 8. A patient who have altered bowel habits How to read the results Having More Value than the reference range can be suspicious, and we can expect celiac disease in these patients. But please note that the biopsy should be performed to confirm the diagnosis. If these antibodies' level is low than the reference range, then there is unlikely that you have celiac disease. Hemorrhoids Panel test This Panel includes the following tests 1. Fecal Globin by Immunochemistry (InSure®) 2. Serum ferritin 3. Serum Hemoglobin Fecal Globin by Immunochemistry (InSure®) It is also called a fecal occult blood test. It quantitatively detects the level of hidden(occult) blood in our stools. Any Pathology in our lower gastrointestinal tract, which results in blood loss in the stool, can be easily detected with this test. These days it is widely used as a diagnostic and screening purpose for our routine examination. Many hidden pathologies like diverticula, polyps, and malignancies can easily be screened and diagnosed by this test. We usually need a stool sample to perform this test. Moreover, there are no special preparations to be done before this test. Who Should Take this test According to the recent guidelines by WHO, every person between 35-55 years should test him/herself every three months. Moreover, apart from this following people should undergo the testing on an urgent basis 1. Pale people 2. People who have pain in the abdomen for more than three months 3. People who have seen any blood in the stool 4. People with altered bowel habits 5. People having a family history of malignancies How to read the results It is either positive or negative. The positive results mean you are losing blood somewhere in the intestine. It can be due to hemorrhoids, ulcers, diverticuli, or cancers associated with the intestine. Moreover, the definitive diagnosis is made after further assessment and investigation are done. The Negative Results means that there is no hidden blood in the stool. You are not supposed to worry about in this case. Serum Ferritin Serum Ferritin is ordered to check the level of stored iron present in our body. There is an altered level of ferritin in the body in case of any blood loss or anemia. Specifically, there is marked blood loss in hemorrhoids, and there is a decreased level of stored iron present in the body. We usually need a blood sample from a vein to perform this test. There are no specific preparations to be made to perform this test. Who should order this test According to the American Heart Association, this test should be ordered in every subject whose Red Blood Cells are less than normal. Moreover, there are some other conditions in which this test should be ordered at every cost. These include Patients who feel excessive tiredness Patients who feel breathless after climbing a few stairs People who have frequent headaches People who have pale skin People who lost their ability to sex People who experience weight loss People who have joint pain and cardiovascular complications should also be considered. How to read the results A low level of ferritin, according to the reference range, is associated with iron deficiency anemia. According to the reference range, a high ferritin level is associated with iron deposition ailments like hemochromatosis. Its normal level can be associated with iron poisoning. A high level can be associated with hemolytic and sideroblastic anemia. Hemoglobin This test measures the level of Hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is a protein present in red blood cells that carry oxygen from the lungs to all the parts of the body. Hemoglobin is a direct marker of red blood cells. If you have a low level of Hemoglobin, you can have anemia, and a high level can be associated with polycythemia. It is ordered to rule out the pathologies associated with an altered level of Hemoglobin. This test is usually performed with CBC and other baselines in which we draw blood samples from the vein. Moreover, there are no special preparations to perform this test. The level of Hemoglobin in hemorrhoids is shallow, and the patient is profoundly anemic. When to order this test According to WHo guidelines, this should be done every three months to screen the blood deficiency. Moreover, in the following subjects, it should be done on a priority basis. 1. Pale patients 2. Patients who have blood loss episodes either from trauma or through stools or any other part of the body. 3. A patient who feel tired all the time 4. Patient with recurrent episodes of flushing, headache, and chest pain 5. Patients with cold, pale hands, irregular heartbeat, and breathing rate. 6. In people with a diagnosed enlarged spleen, it should be a priority test to rule out polycythemia. How to read the results In males, the average level is from 13-17g/dl In Female, the average level is 12-16g/dl A higher level than the reference range is associated with polycythemia. Low level than the reference range is associated with anemia. Lupus Panel Lab Tests It includes 1. ANA Screen,IFA, Reflex Titer/Pattern,and Reflex to Multiplex 11 Ab Cascade 2. DNA (ds) Antibody ANA Screen,IFA, Reflex Titer/Pattern,and Reflex to Multiplex 11 Ab Cascade This test is used to diagnose autoimmune rheumatic disease. This test detects the Antinuclear antibodies in our blood.ANA antibodies are the autoimmune antibodies that attack the nuclear material in our cells. It all results in diseases like Sjogren syndrome, systemic lupus, erythematosus, and many rheumatic autoimmune diseases. According to the American Heart Association, every individual with joint pains resistant to ordinary analgesics should undergo this testing. Moreover, we do need a blood sample from the vein to perform this test. We can use different methods to perform this test, one of which is an Indirect fluorescent antibody, and the other is an immunoassay. When to order this test According to NICE and American Heart Association, This test should always be ordered once you have joint pain resistant to traditional analgesics. Moreover, there are this should always be performed in the following patients 1. People who are already positive for other antibodies 2. People who have a low-grade fever 3. People who have numbness and tingling sensation on the skin 4. People who experience hair loss 5. People who have a specific rash on the skin 6. People who have generalized muscular and joint pains 7. People with repeated episodes of hematuria, abdominal pain, and blood vessel disorders 8. People who are hypersensitive to the light How to read the results of the test When interpreted on Immunoassay, the patient value is compared with the laboratory cut off value. If the value is higher than the cutoff, the patient has ANA present in the blood. If this meter is low, this means that the value of ANA is unremarkable. In the Indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA), the test results are reported as a titer. The Titers are expressed as ratios obtained by diluting a portion of the blood sample with saline (saltwater). For example, a titer result of 1:320 means that one part blood sample was mixed with 320 parts of saline, and this was the lowest ratio at which ANA was still detected. The lower the dilution ratio at which ANA is still detected, the higher the titer and the greater the autoantibody present. DNA (ds) Antibody Double-Stranded DNA antibody testing is done to check the level of Anti Ds DNA specific autoantibodies. Normally, antibodies are produced in response to infection in our body, but these antibodies are produced on their own and start destroying our body's healthy tissues. People who are positive for ANA are prone to develop Systemic Lupus erythematosus and should undergo this test to rule out the SLE. Moreover, it is also used to diagnose conditions like viral hepatitis and infectious mononucleosis. Usually, we draw blood samples from veins to perform this test, and there are no special preparations to perform this test. When to order this test According to American Guidelines, it should be ordered in every patient with positive ANA. There are some other conditions in which it should be ordered on an urgent basis. 1. A patient who complains of repeated generalized muscle ache 2. Patients with joints pain 3. Patients with cardiovascular involvement like syncope murmurs etc 4. Patients who have a butterfly rash on the face 5. Patients with severe joint pain 6. Patients who have hair loss. 7. Patients who feel generalized weakness 8. Patients with fever and myalgias 9. Patients who have burning micturition or haematuria 10. People with severe abdominal pain, blood in vomitus or are hepatitis positive. How to read the test A High titer can indicate that the person has either SLE or has an acute flare of this disease these days. A low titer means that these autoantibodies are negative, and we are supposed to look for the other pathologies, including Sjogren's syndrome and other connective tissue disorders. Lyme Disease Panel test Lyme Disease Antibodies (IgG, IgM), Immunoblot This test detects the antibodies produced in our body in response to the Borrelia infection, also called Lyme disease. After the proper interpretations of the results, we can also conclude the time of infection. The bacteria is transmitted through the bite of an insect, and it results in multiple organ damage. We usually draw blood or CSF sample to perform this test. There are no specific preparations to be done before the test. We usually perform two methods to diagnose the pathology and then confirm it. We first perform Enzyme Immunoassays to detect antibodies' presence, and then this finding is confirmed by the western blot method. When to order the test According to American Guidelines, it is recommended that it should be ordered in every individual with a history of a tick bite. Moreover, there are some special conditions in which it should be ordered at every cost 1. When you see a characteristic bull eye rash that spreads from the site of bite of the tick 2. When you observe multiple swollen lymph nodes present in the body 3. When you feel severe pain in the head 4. When there is a history of high-grade fever and myalgias 5. When you have such severe pain, the joints that keep the patient immobile How to read the results If both the IgG and IgM antibodies are positive and western blot, they are most likely suffering from Lyme Disease. If only IgM is positive, the rest two are negative. This means that patients most probably suffer from an acute infection, or this is a false result. If a patient has only IgG positive, the patient was infected with this virus in recent years. If both the antibodies IgG. IgM and western blot is absent; then, there is no infection present in the body. Strep Throat Test This test is usually performed to check whether streptococcus bacteria or other causes cause the sore throat. Usually, it is performed in such patients where it is a suspicion of streptococcus bacterial infection. We usually take a swab and touch the swab on your throat to take the sample. This test is performed in two ways, by rapid antigen testing and by doing the specimen's culture. In Rapid, Antigen testing results come in about 20 minutes. Moreover, when it comes to diagnosing the pathology right, the confirmatory test is always Culture. When it is ordered According to the WHO Guidelines, it should be ordered in every subject with high-grade fever for more than a week with redness in the throat. Moreover, there are some other conditions in which it should be ordered at every cost. these include 1. High-Grade Fever 2. Redness over the tonsils and in the throat 3. Repeated Episodes of Myalgias, Body Aches, and Headache 4. Lymphadenopathy 5. Generalized rash throughout the body 6. Spots on the throat 7. Difficulty in swallowing 8. Extremely Painful Throat How to interpret the results If the Rapid Antigen test is positive, the person is suffering from the streptococcus infection. Treatment should be started straightway in this case. If the Rapid Antigen Test is negative, this does not rule out streptococcus infection; Culture should be ordered straightway. Male Infertility Panel CBC This test is performed to measure the number of blood cells present in our blood. This test is the foremost approach to check an individual's fitness, but it should be done in every individual on a priority basis to diagnose any pathology. Infections, Malignancies, and all types of inflammations, including allergic responses, can be diagnosed through this test. Moreover, Male Infertility and Erectile Dysfunction can also be diagnosed after these tests. We usually draw a Blood sample from the vein to perform this. This test involves 1. Red Blood Cell count to measure the number of red blood cells 1. Hemoglobin concentration 1. MCV,MCHC,MCH 1. White Blood cell count and Differentiated White cell count 1. Platelet Count When to order the test According to WHO, CBC comes under the umbrella of General Fitness test, and every individual should undergo this test every three months. Moreover, there are some other circumstances in which it should be done. These involve 1. People who feel unwell all the time 1. People who have off and on fever 1. People who have a bleeding disorder 1. People who are suffering from any malignancy 1. People who are either anemic or have high RBCs. How to read the results Red Blood Cells The reference range in Male is Men: 4.5-5.9 x 106/microliter, while in females, the reference range is 4.1-5.1 x 106 microliter. High RBC is an indicator of Polycythemia. Be any lung, kidney disease. Hemoglobin The reference range in Male is 13-17g/dl, while the female it 12-16g/dl. A high value indicates more blood and polycythemia picture. while low level can be due to blood loss somewhere in the body or kidney disease White Blood Cells Normally 9000-11000 White Blood cells are present in our body with few lymphocytes. They can be increased in malignancy, infection, or inflammation. Platelets Normally, about 1.5Lack to 3 Lakh Platelets are present in our body. Low levels indicate a bleeding disorder. A high level indicates any malignancy. FSH and LH This test is performed to check the level of Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone. These tests are usually the markers of infertility in both males and females.FSH is produced during the menstrual cycle's follicular cycle, while Luteinizing Hormone is produced during the Luteinizing Phase of the Menstrual Cycle. We usually draw a blood sample from a vein to perform this test. Both these tests can assess the status of the Hypothalamus, Pituitary gland, and Ovaries. There are no special preparations to be made before performing this test. When to order this test According to American Guidelines, every individual with a complaint of infertility should undergo this test on a priority basis. Moreover, there are some other circumstances as described below 1. When you have a low sperm count 2. When you have decreased sexual drive 3. When menstruation does not start at the time, it will be started 4. When you have breast tenderness 5. When you don't develop the pubic hairs How to read the results FSH Interpretations The level Before puberty is 0 to 4.0 mIU/mL (0 to 4.0 IU/L). During puberty the level becomes 0.3 to 10.0 mIU/mL (0.3 to 10.0 IU/L). Women who are still menstruating - 4.7 to 21.5 mIU/mL (4.5 to 21.5 IU/L). After menopause, it becomes 25.8 to 134.8 mIU/mL (25.8 to 134.8 IU/L) High levels are associated with Ovarian Pathologies like Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and developmental defects. A low level of FSH can be due to ovarian malignancies. LH level interpretation It ranges from 1 to 15IU/L.Its altered levels affect the body in the same manner as described in the above FSH panel. Progesterone Test This test measures the level of progesterone in the body. Progesterone is secreted from the placenta, which plays an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy. Failure to maintain pregnancy can result in misconception and abortion results. We usually order these tests to check whether the patient has adequate levels to maintain the pregnancy. Moreover, we usually draw blood from the vein to perform this test. When to order Progesterone Test It should be ordered in every patient who underwent the following problems 1. Breast tenderness 2. Pad spotting 3. Having a family history of abortions 4. Continuous abdominal pain 5. Vaginal dryness 6. Mood swings 7. Fever in pregnancy How to read the results We are supposed to keep a look at the reference level of progesterone in the blood. It varies with the menstrual cycle and, more specifically, with the age of the placenta. The above reference value is safe to maintain the pregnancy; moreover, a low level can result in miscarriage and end of pregnancy. Testosterone This test is done to measure the level of testosterone in the blood. Testosterone is the main hormone of sexual drive in males. Inadequate production in men can lead to infertility and erectile dysfunction in men. Moreover, bone and body muscle mass are also maintained by testosterone. The level of testosterone is measured by drawing blood venous samples. The testicles produce it in men. We dot need any specific preparations to perform this test. When to order this test This test should be ordered in every subject who experience low sexual drive according to the recent guidelines by WHO. Moreover, there are some special guidelines discussed below 1. If a patient does not conceive for a year 2. If a patient has loss of libido 3. If a patient has the low muscle mass 4. If a patient has low bone mass How to read the results Normally, its level is 350-1000ng/dl in the males. Low levels are more worrisome because they can result in infertility and erectile dysfunction with loss of body and bone mass. A high level can result in excess bone and muscle mass. Moreover, high testosterone in the body is associated with extreme sexual curiosity. Thyroid test This test is performed to check the efficacy of the thyroid gland. It includes TSH T3and T4. These hormones are released from the pituitary and Thyroid gland and eventually helps us in assessing thyroid function. Altered levels in the blood can result in disturbed metabolism in the body, and you can experience its consequences in the form of thyroid swelling. We usually take a blood sample to perform this test. Moreover, there are no special preparations to be done before performing this test. When to order this test According to American Guidelines, this should be ordered in every subject who experiences fatigue all the time. In the above-mentioned findings, thyroid tests should always be considered. These are Generalized body weakness Fatigue Loss of libido Altered bowel habit Disturbed sleep Family history of thyroid disease Poor sleep Anxiety Cold peripheries and feeling of an extreme warm body How to read the results Normally the TSH ranges between 0-5ml/UL. A high level can result from a tumor of the pituitary or poor Thyroid hormone release from the gland. T3 and T4 levels are raised, then the reference value in hyperthyroidism and decreased in hypothyroidism. Vitamin B12 Test This test is performed to measure the level of Vitamin B12 or cobalamin in the blood. Vitamin B12 helps in the nourishment of nerves present in our body. Altered level of Vitamin B12 can result in Sensory and peripheral neuropathies. We usually draw a blood sample to perform this test, and there are no special arrangements to be made before performing this test. When to order this test This should be carried out in every patient who has diabetes and feels numbness and paresthesia in the body. Moreover, there are some special considerations given below. Feeling of Numbness Tingling sensations Paresthesia Loss of tactile feedback The feeling of extreme fatigues How to read the results Its normal value ranges from 100-1000 picograms; the more the value of this vitamin, the safer it is to develop the neurological impairment. A low level can result in the above mentioned neurological implications because its adequate level is important for the nourishment of neurons. Erectile Dysfunction Panel CBC This test is performed to measure the number of blood cells present in our blood. This test is the foremost approach to check an individual's fitness, but it should be done in every individual on a priority basis to diagnose any pathology. Infections, Malignancies, and all types of inflammations, including allergic responses, can be diagnosed through this test. Moreover, Male Infertility and Erectile Dysfunction can also be diagnosed after these tests. We usually draw a Blood sample from the vein to perform this. This test involves 1. Red Blood Cell count to measure the number of red blood cells 1. Hemoglobin concentration 1. MCV,MCHC,MCH 1. White Blood cell count and Differentiated White cell count 1. Platelet Count When to order the test According to WHO, CBC comes under the umbrella of General Fitness test, and every individual should undergo this test every 3 months. Moreover, there are some other circumstances in which it should be done. These involve 1. People who feel unwell all the time 1. People who have off and on fever 1. People who have a bleeding disorder 1. People who are suffering from any malignancy 1. People who are either anemic or have high RBCs. How to read the results Red Blood Cells The reference range in Male is Men: 4.5-5.9 x 106/microliter, while in females, the reference range is 4.1-5.1 x 106 microliter. High RBC is an indicator of Polycythemia. Be any lung, kidney disease. Hemoglobin The reference range in Male is 13-17g/dl, while the female it 12-16g/dl. A high value indicates more blood and polycythemia picture. while low level can be due to blood loss somewhere in the body or kidney disease White Blood Cells Normally 9000-11000 White Blood cells are present in our body with few lymphocytes. They can be increased in malignancy, infection, or inflammation. Platelets Normally, about 1.5Lack to 3 Lakh Platelets are present in our body. Low levels indicate a bleeding disorder. A high level indicates any malignancy. FSH and LH This test is performed to check the level of Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone. These tests are usually the markers of infertility in both males and females.FSH is produced during the menstrual cycle's follicular cycle, while Luteinizing Hormone is produced during the Luteinizing Phase of the Menstrual Cycle. We usually draw a blood sample from a vein to perform this test. Both these tests can assess the status of the Hypothalamus, Pituitary gland, and Ovaries. There are no special preparations to be made before performing this test. When to order this test According to American Guidelines, every individual with a complaint of infertility should undergo this test on a priority basis. Moreover, there are some other circumstances as described below 1. When you have a low sperm count 2. When you have decreased sexual drive 3. When menstruation does not start at the time, it will be started 4. When you have breast tenderness 5. When you don't develop the pubic hairs How to read the results FSH Interpretations The level Before puberty is 0 to 4.0 mIU/mL (0 to 4.0 IU/L). During puberty the level becomes 0.3 to 10.0 mIU/mL (0.3 to 10.0 IU/L). Women who are still menstruating - 4.7 to 21.5 mIU/mL (4.5 to 21.5 IU/L). After menopause, it becomes 25.8 to 134.8 mIU/mL (25.8 to 134.8 IU/L) High levels are associated with Ovarian Pathologies like Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and developmental defects. A low level of FSH can be due to ovarian malignancies. LH level interpretation It ranges from 1 to 15IU/L.Its altered levels affect the body in the same manner as described in the above FSH panel. Progesterone Test This test measures the level of progesterone in the body. Progesterone is secreted from the placenta, which plays a vital role in the maintenance of pregnancy. Failure to maintain pregnancy can result in misconception and abortion results. We usually order these tests to check whether the patient has adequate levels to maintain the pregnancy. Moreover, we usually draw blood from the vein to perform this test. When to order Progesterone Test It should be ordered in every patient who underwent the following problems 1. Breast tenderness 2. Pad spotting 3. Having a family history of abortions 4. Continuous abdominal pain 5. Vaginal dryness 6. Mood swings 7. Fever in pregnancy How to read the results We are supposed to keep a look at the reference level of progesterone in the blood. It varies with the menstrual cycle and, more specifically, with the age of the placenta. The above reference value is safe to maintain the pregnancy; moreover, a low level can result in miscarriage and end of pregnancy. Testosterone This test is done to measure the level of testosterone in the blood. Testosterone is the main hormone of sexual drive in males. Inadequate production in men can lead to infertility and erectile dysfunction in men. Moreover, bone and body muscle mass are also maintained by testosterone. The level of testosterone is measured by drawing blood venous samples. The testicles produce it in men. We dot need any specific preparations to perform this test. When to order this test This test should be ordered in every subject who experience low sexual drive according to the recent guidelines by WHO. Moreover, there are some special guidelines discussed below 1. If a patient does not conceive for a year 2. If a patient has loss of libido 3. If a patient has the low muscle mass 4. If a patient has low bone mass How to read the results Normally, its level is 350-1000ng/dl in the males. Low levels are more worrisome because they can result in infertility and erectile dysfunction with loss of body and bone mass. A high level can result in excess bone and muscle mass. Moreover, high testosterone in the body is associated with extreme sexual curiosity. Thyroid test This test is performed to check the efficacy of the thyroid gland. It includes TSH T3and T4. These hormones are released from the pituitary and Thyroid gland and eventually helps us in assessing thyroid function. Altered levels in the blood can result in disturbed metabolism in the body, and you can experience its consequences in the form of thyroid swelling. We usually take a blood sample to perform this test. Moreover, there are no special preparations to be done before performing this test. When to order this test According to American Guidelines, this should be ordered in every subject who experiences fatigue all the time. In the above-mentioned findings, thyroid tests should always be considered. These are Generalized body weakness Fatigue Loss of libido Altered bowel habit Disturbed sleep Family history of thyroid disease Poor sleep Anxiety Cold peripheries and feeling of an extreme warm body How to read the results Normally the TSH ranges between 0-5ml/UL. A high level can result from the tumor of the pituitary or poor Thyroid hormone release from the gland. T3 and T4 levels are raised, then the reference value in hyperthyroidism and decreased in hypothyroidism. Vitamin B12 Test This test is performed to measure the level of Vitamin B12 or cobalamin in the blood. Vitamin B12 helps in the nourishment of nerves present in our body. Altered level of Vitamin B12 can result in Sensory and peripheral neuropathies. We usually draw a blood sample to perform this test, and there are no special arrangements to be made before performing this test. When to order this test This should be carried out in every patient who has diabetes and feels numbness and paresthesia in the body. Moreover, there are some special considerations given below. Feeling of Numbness Tingling sensations Paresthesia Loss of tactile feedback The feeling of extreme fatigues How to read the results Its standard value ranges from 100-1000 picograms; the more the value of this vitamin, the safer it is to develop the neurological impairment. A low level can result in the above mentioned neurological implications because its adequate level is essential for the nourishment of neurons. ANA Screen,IFA, Reflex Titer/Pattern,and Reflex to Multiplex 11 Ab Cascade This test is used to diagnose autoimmune rheumatic disease. This test detects the Antinuclear antibodies in our blood.ANA antibodies are the autoimmune antibodies that attack the nuclear material in our cells. It all results in diseases like Sjogren syndrome, systemic lupus, erythematosus, and many rheumatic autoimmune diseases. According to the American Heart Association, every individual with joint pains resistant to ordinary analgesics should undergo this testing. Moreover, we do need a blood sample from the vein to perform this test. We can use different methods to perform this test, one of which is an Indirect fluorescent antibody, and the other is an immunoassay. When to order this test According to NICE and American Heart Association, This test should always be ordered once you have joint pain resistant to traditional analgesics. Moreover, there are this should always be performed in the following patients 1. People who are already positive for other antibodies 2. People who have a low-grade fever 3. People who have numbness and tingling sensation on the skin 4. People who experience hair loss 5. People who have a specific rash on the skin 6. People who have generalized muscular and joint pains 7. People with repeated episodes of hematuria, abdominal pain, and blood vessel disorders 8. People who are hypersensitive to the light How to read the results of the test When interpreted on Immunoassay, the patient value is compared with the laboratory cut off value. If the value is higher than the cutoff, the patient has ANA present in the blood. If this meter is low, this means that the value of ANA is unremarkable. In the Indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA), the test results are reported as a titer. The Titers are expressed as ratios obtained by diluting a portion of the blood sample with saline (saltwater). For example, a titer result of 1:320 means that one part blood sample was mixed with 320 parts of saline, and this was the lowest ratio at which ANA was still detected. The lower the dilution ratio at which ANA is still detected, the higher the titer and the greater the autoantibody present.