Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver and mainly caused by viral infection, but there are also other causes including hepatitis due to certain medications, toxins, drugs, and alcohol.
It is a center of focus from many years because it attacks liver and Liver is the most important organ of our body as it filters toxins produced in our body, produces bile which is also important in the digestion of fats and also plays its role in the absorption of vitamin A, D, E, K.
In developing countries every third person is a carrier of hepatitis, it is crucial to screen patients as early as possible because it is one of the silent killers and leads to malignancy of the liver and other organs after spreading through the bloodstream.
Types of Hepatitis
There are mainly 5 types of hepatitis caused by 5 different viruses as follows:
1. Hepatitis A (HAV)
2. Hepatitis B (HBV)
3. Hepatitis C (HCV)
4. Hepatitis D (HDV)
5. Hepatitis E (HEV)
Hepatitis A presents with the following symptoms: fever, loss of appetite, vomiting, nausea, fatigue, dark colored urine, jaundice.
Hepatitis B presents with the following symptoms: Edema, vomiting, nausea, ascites, itching of skin.
Hepatitis C presents with the following symptoms: Bleeding on brushing, vomiting, nausea, loss of appetite, dark urine.
Hepatitis D presents with the following symptoms: Intoxication, physical weakness, fever, jaundice.
Hepatitis E presents with the following symptoms: Yellowing of the skin and eyes, nausea, vomiting, severe weakness, reduced appetite, fever.
Investigations for Hepatitis
Blood test includes Complete Blood Count (CBC) to check red blood cells and white blood cells to determine patients health, Liver Function Tests (LFTs) to find how effectively your liver works so high levels of LFTs (ALT, AST) indicate that liver is not functioning properly.
Urine test (urinalysis) is to check Bilirubin, Urobilinogen in urine, high levels indicate that the liver is not working properly.
PCR test is another test used to find whether the hepatitis virus exists in your blood or not. It is quantitative and qualitative. It is a confirmatory test that can check the presence as well as the viral load in an individual
Liver biopsy is used to find the pathology of hepatitis by taking a sample of tissue from the liver.
Abdominal ultrasound having ultrasound waves to make an image of the organs present in the abdomen. This is used to find enlargement of the liver or damaged liver, tumors of the liver, and any abnormal fluid accumulation within the abdomen.
Another test includes serology viral markers for hepatitis A includes Anti-HAV (IgM) to check the onset of disease and Anti-HAV (IgG) Indicates immunity. For hepatitis C Anti-HCV. For hepatitis B includes Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), Hepatitis e antigen, and Immunoglobulin M (IgM). For hepatitis D Serum HDAg, IgM anti-HDV, and IgG anti-HDV, HDV RNA.
No need to worry about it. All these tests are available at our laboratory services at a very cheap and affordable rate with the commitment of accurate results. You can take our blood panel tests, immunization panel tests, lipid panel tests for the timely diagnosis of Hepatitis
Treatment of hepatitis
Hepatitis A does not require any treatment but the supportive one including bed rest, diet containing high carbohydrates, low in fat is recommended. Immune serum globulin plays an important role in an outbreak of hepatitis. Drugs should be avoided in this hepatitis. In case of severe nausea and vomiting, Antiemetic should be used. For supplements use Vitamins. In severe cases, a liver transplant is the choice. Active Immunization with an inactivated virus vaccine to prevent this infection. It is important not to use antiviral drugs in the therapy of HAV infection.
Hepatitis B has two forms one is acute and the other is chronic. Acute hepatitis does not need any treatment but chronic hepatitis needs supportive treatment to relieve complications and side effects and to improve the patient’s comfort and quality of life. Chronic hepatitis is mainly treated by the use of Antiviral medications (Lamivudine, Entecavir, Tenofovir, Interferon-alpha).
Most importantly not to become the source of the spread of this virus. The goals of treatment are HBeAg seroconversion, reduction in HBV-DNA, and normalization of the LFTs. Can be prevented by the use of the Hepatitis B vaccine before infection. In the last stage, the only way to get rid of this infection is Liver transplant.
Hepatitis C has two forms like hepatitis B, acute, and chronic hepatitis. Both of the hepatitis is treated by Antiviral medications ( interferon / ribavirin-based regimens). 12 weeks of treatment is required majorly in hepatitis C. In case of severe damage to the liver or case of cirrhosis (late stage of fibrosis of the liver) liver transplant is required.
Hepatitis D has no beneficial medications to treat with. Interferon is used to treat this hepatitis but the success rate is very low. Hepatitis D can be prevented by the use of the hepatitis B vaccine.
Hepatitis E is not treated with any antiviral medications. The reason behind it is that this hepatitis presents with acute symptoms that resolve on its own by time. Patients with this hepatitis are suggested to take a good diet, bed rest, proper fluid intake, and avoid alcohol.
A secondary disease or condition like hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic failure, cirrhosis developing in the course of a hepatitis.
Prevention of hepatitis
Maintenance of hygiene is the first step towards victory because hepatitis A and E are caused by poor hygiene. Proper hand-washing with soap and clean water, use of filtered water for drinking purposes, properly cooked food, avoid contaminated needles, razors that are used for shaving, and strictly avoid using someone else’s toothbrush. Prevent unsafe sexual contact or sexual intercourse. Use a condom during sexual intercourse.
Vaccines are the most important way to prevent hepatitis but vaccinations are available only for hepatitis A and B.There is no vaccination for Hepatitis C and hepatitis E. But vaccines for hepatitis B are effective for hepatitis D.
Don’t get tattoos or body piercings from an infected person.