Mumps, Measles, and Rubella
Mumps, Measles, and Rubella are viral infections that attack our respiratory tract. These Viral ailments are no less than a pandemic owing to their contagious mode of transmission. They are the
cause of millions of deaths in the past despite the presence of vaccines.
Measles is caused by a paramyxovirus. A person gets its virus by direct inhalation and the virus spreads to the organs by the bloodstream. After getting the virus, symptoms tend to appear after a period of one to twelve days.
Symptoms of Measles
After getting the virus you may experience
Cough, fever, running nose, sore throat, white spots in the mouth, and a characteristic rash.
Rash is a classic symptom of measles as it starts from the head and spreads to the arms, legs, and trunk.
Diagnosis of Measles:
Measles is diagnosed based on history examination and investigations.
There is a history of contact for measles virus in other family members or friends
Upon examination, there is a characteristic Rash and white spots inside the mouth
Following Blood tests should be carried out for a proper diagnosis of measles.
On CBC Examination, there is a decreased number of lymphocytes and platelets.
If In case of complications there are deranged liver function and renal function tests
IGg and IgM antibody tests are also available that can rule out past or present infection.
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Treatment of Measles
There is no specific treatment of measles, the focus should be on the symptoms and to prevent complications and provision of proper diet, water, analgesics, and ointments in the form of skin lubricants should be ensured.
Prevention of Measles
Vaccinations lie on top of the list when it comes to the prevention of measles.
MMR Vaccine is available that prevents us from mumps, measles, and rubella. If we get at least two doses of MMR vaccine, there is a ninety-seven percent chance that you are not getting measles.
Secondary modes of prevention includes isolation from the infected individuals
Mumps is a viral infection caused by a paramyxo group of viruses. They have contagious transmission as they transfer from one to another through direct contact, saliva, and respiratory secretions. It is also called a Salivary Virus as it attacks the biggest salivary gland of our body.
Symptoms of Mumps
After getting mumps, you may experience Low-grade fever, fatigue, body aches, and headaches.
A Classic Symptom of mumps is the painful swelling of the parotid gland that is preceded after the high-grade fever.
Diagnosis of measles:
It is diagnosed based on history, physical examination, local examination, and relevant investigations.
There is a history of fever, painful jawline, fatigue from a couple of days
On local examination, there is a hard tender swelling present at the angle of mandible
Following investigations are available in the Diagnosis of measles
In uncomplicated infection, CBC shows a decreased number of lymphocytes. While in complicated infections, there are deranged liver profiles, renal profiles platelets, and complete blood count tests.
IGg and IgM tests are also available for the diagnosis of passive and active immunity in an individual.
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Treatment of Mumps
Only supportive treatment should be encouraged in the treatment of Mumps, moreover, the provision of analgesics, plenty of water and timely immunization can prevent the complication in an individual having mumps
German measles or rubella is a contagious viral infection caused by rubivirus. Infected individuals get the virus from saliva, air, or direct contact. Its uncomplicated infection can go in a week or two but one gets complicated or one who gets rubella in pregnancy can get devastating outcomes like congenital deformities i.e delayed growth, heart defects, poorly functioning organs, and death. In recent times, its infection rate is higher but it gets reduced now after the invention of vaccination against it.
Symptoms of rubella
The incubation period of the rubella virus is about one to two weeks. One can get the symptoms in this period after the initial exposure to the virus. These includes
Fever, Body Aches, swelling or tenderness in the lymph nodes, redness in the eyes, and stuffy nose.
Sometimes a complicated infection can lead to arachnoiditis, encephalitis, meningitis, and meningoencephalitis.
Diagnosis of Rubella
It is diagnosed based on proper History, local or systemic examination and relevant complete investigation
Investigation involves Complete Blood Examination, liver function tests, serum electrolytes, and antibody testing
Antibody testing is available in the form of IgG and IgM that can detect active and passive immunization in an individual
Treatment of Rubella
Mainly it is treated symptomatically and the provision of analgesics and anti-inflammatory medicines are ensured. In the case of congenital abnormalities, abortion is the only choice to get rid of future problems.
Prevention of Rubella
Immunization in the form of the MMR vaccine plays a pivotal role in the prevention of Rubella. It is given in the first year and there is a ninety-seven percent chance that one cant get it after the proper vaccination. Secondary prevention include staying away from one having these infections and proper SOPs can prevent the spread of infections